1. Reading 3 :

Baker E, Barret M, Roberts L, 2002, “Working With Others” Working Communication,John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd, pp 318–335.




This chapter described about the important skills to work in a group and develop communication effectively. External conditions, internal dynamics and leadership are the factors to built groups working well. External conditions, such as time, competition, authority, change, people and control, are the aspects of the cultures in organizational which can influence people to think. The goal, resources, structure and roles in groups are the parts of internal dynamics. All these factors also need leadership skill which can be seen in the roles, communication, take and give process. Flexibility in many varieties of conditions and creativities are also the important aspects in leadership.


In addition, this chapter also examined the negative and positive aspects in the process of decision making, especially in how to explore the benefits of conflicts and negotiation process. There are many ways to make decision, such as orientation with other members, discussion process when face the conflicts, directly to solve the conflicts and give reward when the group can reach the consensus. To improve it, organization can start by formulate the problems, and then solve it using brainstorming, reflection and nominal group technique.


However, nursing schools in Indonesia are still using conventional methods of teaching. Many teachers are seldom using discussion methods because it takes time and is not enough resources to control this process. Even so, discussion process have to include in the education process, because by use this method, students can realize how to work in the groups, especially when they face the conflicts and problems. This skill will be important for their success in the future.


Nursing is profession which works in many areas of health care using team work. They have to work 24 hours beside patients, so nurses can not care the patient only by themselves. In the team work, it is normal if there are many problems and conflicts because “many heads result many perceptions”. So, decision making process in team is the important skills which are necessary to built in nursing students.


2. Reading 1 :

Bryce, J., Frigo, T., McKenzie, P. & Withers, G. 2000, ‘Why is this an era of lifelong learning?’, in The Era of Lifelong Learning : Implications for Secondary School, Asutralian Council for Educational Research, Camberwell, Vic, pp. 3–6.




The post-industrial era in Australia is causing dramatic changes in social life that is already predicted by Barry Jones in 1982. For this reason, most leading industrialized countries have made plans to prepare young people by generic employment-related to meet the demand of flexibility and adaptability in the work environment changing. The most issues in school to implement this plans is lifelong learning.


Lifelong learning still has different meaning in many countries. Australia is focusing lifelong learning to improve skills & competency, while Japan is more interest to increase the welfare of their citizen. Actually, lifelong learning which encourages people to learn new skills and knowledge throughout life can be divided into four generic skills. These are life, social, learning and enabling skills. Most schools have already engaged it but are not necessary to bring it together. These skills can improve by use the cyber-revolution so people can find new ideas and adopt it to improve the competency.


Nowadays, there are about 500 nursing schools in Indonesia which produce from 30.000 to 35.000 nurses per year. But, the government only can employ 10.000 nurses per year. As a result, in 2005, there are about 100.000 unemployment nurses in Indonesia (Joko Winarno, 2007). Consequently, nurses have to compete between them to reach the best chance and still improve their skills by many areas of learning.


In my opinion, lifelong learning is good way to solve that, especially in learning and social skills. Students must know that the challenges for them are not only to get good job, but also how to maintenance their position after employed as nurses. Nurses from other countries started to come in Indonesia with guarantee that they have higher quality but accepted lesser salary. Because of this, students must be completed with computer, data analysis and access internet skills, so they can still continue to study after graduated from the nursing school.                      


3. Reading 2 :

Smith, R. 1995, ‘Guidelines for critical thinking’, in Challenging Your Preconceptions: Thinking Critically about Psychology, Brooks/Cole, Pacific Grove, CA, pp. 1–8.




The first chapter of this book described about how critical thinkers think. One of psychologist, Jean Piaget, assumed that critical thinking is normal process of cognitive development and completed after 16 years. But, many researches and other experts found that may many mistakes in Piaget’s assumption. In reality, people have many differently in the thinking process. Some people have higher critical thinking skills than others. It is because critical thinking involves understanding of personal assumptions and opinions which includes collecting the evidence, reflection and assessing of the other alternatives as a process to make a decision.


Characteristics of critical thinkers are that they have flexibility in accepting new ideas, skill in identifying biases and assumptions, requiring evidence, also make differences between realities and opinions. Besides, they will try to make a simpler answer when it possible to do, but still using logical process. In addition, before make a decision, critical thinkers will examine their data first.


Most nursing schools in Indonesia are still using conventional methods in the teaching process and poor in discussion process. As a result, students have opinion that lecturers are always right and directly accepted everything that they heard and saw. It seems that education is only a process to open the student’s heads then full it with much of knowledge and skills. After graduated, they will do everything similar with what they accepted before.


However, critical thinking is the important skill to make nurses can renew their knowledge and skills to face the complex changing in health care. Even in curriculum there is a subject about critical thinking, in fact, this subject is only a lecture without practices to built critical thinking skills. It is really good idea to improve student’s critical thinking skills by implement it in many areas of subject. To realize, in every subject, teachers can involve their lectures with discussion methods, such as problem base learning process. So, in the future, students can use it when face the new systems of health care by discuses and think before accept it.